Research status and development ideas of hard alloy cutting tool materials

Material, structure and geometry are the three key factors that determine the cutting performance of the tool. Among them, the performance of the tool material plays a key role. The CIRP has pointed out in a research report that: “As the tool material improves, the allowable cutting The speed has almost doubled every 10 years.” The tool material has been developed from high-speed steel and cemented carbide at the beginning of the 20th century to the current high-performance ceramics, superhard materials, etc. The heat-resistant temperature has been increased from 500 to 600°C to 1200. Above °C, the allowable cutting speed has exceeded 1000m / min, making the cutting processing productivity increase 100 times in less than 100 years. Therefore, it can be said that the development of tool materials actually reflects the history of cutting technology.

Research status of hard alloy cutting tool materials

Since the wear resistance and toughness of carbide cutting tool materials are not easily taken into consideration, the user can only select suitable tool materials among many carbide grades according to the specific processing object and processing conditions. This makes the selection of carbide cutting tools and Management has brought inconvenience to improve the comprehensive cutting performance of carbide cutting tool materials. The current research hotspots mainly include the following aspects:

1) Grain Refinement

2) Coated carbide

3) Surface, overall heat treatment and cycle heat treatment

4) Add rare metals

5) Add rare earth elements

Carbide tool material development ideas

Application of whisker toughening reinforcement, nano-powder composite strengthening technology comprehensively improve the hardness, toughness and other comprehensive properties of carbide cutting tool materials, is an important direction for future development of carbide tool materials.

1) Whisker reinforcement technology

a. Toughening mechanism

b. Selection and Adding of Whiskers

c. Orientation and content of whiskers

2) Nanocomposite strengthening technology

a.Strengthening mechanism

b. Selection of inhibitors

c. Inhibitor addition method


Based on the comprehensive review of the research status of carbide tool materials, this paper proposes the research and development ideas of the synergistic toughening effect of whisker toughening and nanocomposite strengthening to improve and improve the comprehensive performance of hard alloy. It can be expected that due to the significant advantages of whisker toughening and nanocomposite strengthening processes in improving the properties of hard alloys, they will be widely used in the research and development of new high-performance carbide cutting tool materials.